In 1995, Goleman, then-science reporter for the New York Times, introduced the concept of Emotional Intelligence to the public in a book titled “Emotional Intelligence – Why It Can Matter More Than IQ” which spent 18 months on the New York Times bestseller list.
He was also the first to apply the concept of Emotional Intelligence to business, in his article “What Makes a Leader” (Harvard Business Review, 1998).
A journalist at the New York Times since 1984, Goleman had previously worked for Psychology Today, following a stint in the Seventies as guest lecturer at Harvard University.
The premise is that a high Intelligence Quotient (or IQ) is, in reality, not a certain indicator of success, because many very intelligent people are unsuccessful in their lives and work, whereas others, not considered anywhere near as brilliant, are seen to be highly successful in their endeavours.
A truer indicator, Goleman theorized, would be to measure potential for success by a person’s Emotional Intelligence competencies.
Goleman popularized the term Emotional Intelligence that had originally appeared in a paper by Michael Beldoch in 1964 (Beldoch is co-author, with Joel R. Davitz, of the book “The Communication of Emotional Meaning”); and subsequently by B. Leuner in the 1966 article “Emotional Intelligence and Emancipation”; as well as in Wayne Payne’s 1985 doctoral thesis, “A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence”.
Harking back still further, it is interesting to note that in 1983’s “Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences”, Howard Gardner discusses the concept that cognitive ability could not be fully explained by IQ, therefore there must be “multiple intelligences” including “intrapersonal intelligence” (the ability to understand oneself and one’s feeling, fears and motivations) and “interpersonal intelligence” (the ability to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of others).
However, E.L. Thorndike’s first use of the term “social intelligence” as a skill that enabled the understanding and managing of others, dates to as early as 1920.
Emotional Intelligence is today known as EI, and also as EQ (Emotional Quotient, in contraposition to Intelligence Quotient, IQ).
Use of the term “EQ” can be traced to 1987 (Keith Beasley in Mensa magazine). The term “EI” appeared in 1989 (Stanley Greenspan) and in 1990 (Peter Salovey; John Mayer).
According to Harvard-educated author Daniel Goleman, who in his 1995 book of the same name, popularized the term “Emotional Intelligence” to the point that it has become a household word over the past two decades (even though not everyone uses it correctly), there are five competencies to EI: Self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills.
The first three refer to oneself, and the last three refer to one’s relationship with others, “motivation” being the overlapping element, and a key component, since, without motivation, we would not move in any direction.
Of course, we all have some Emotional Intelligence competencies naturally, and therefore some people are very good at making friends; some are good as bosses because they know how to motivate others; some are good at self-control because they understand how to pace and motivate themselves; some understand their own inner workings and their triggers.
There are those who have all competencies well under control, and there are others who have some of them, and even some who have none.